Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Corporate America is Benefiting from Taking Action on Climate Change

As reflected by the results of the Carbon Disclosure Project, even in the absence of a regulatory framework there is increasing interest from corporate America to managing climate change for commercial benefit,
strategic advantage, investor engagement, mitigation of fiduciary and reputational risk. Even more interesting is the fact that payback times for their investments to manage climate change average three years which is much shorter than conventional wisdom would suggest.

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

UPS and Live Nation Environmentally Friendly Alliance

UPS and Live Nation Entertainment have developed a partnership to offset the carbon emissions from ticket shipping and musician travel. This sponsorship alliance is intended to promote UPS’s environmentally friendly logistics solutions to the millions of Live Nation Entertainment music fans across North America as well as recording artists committed to reducing the environmental impact of their concert tours.

Economic and Environmental Forces Can Work in Harmony

The success of many environmentally sustainable businesses makes the case for the transition to a low carbon economy. These businesses are profitable and sustainable, they create jobs and minimize their impact on the environment.

Monday, November 28, 2011

Greener Gifts

Here is a holiday gift guide composed of items that take care of our planet and the people on it. This is the type of commerce that is helping to forge a better world. Some of these items are also featured on Made For Good which is a “catalyst of collaboration”. They are paying forward their decade-old embedded generosity business concept. They do this through Made for Good sponsored events and resources, their wholly owned brands and their consortium of partnerships with powerful nonprofit organizations. They create new revenue streams for their partners through like-minded consumer product goods created to augment their endowment efforts and assist them with fundraising in their mission of giving – hence their tagline …… “a recurring model of giving”.

All Indications Suggest a Banner Year for Cyber Monday Shopping

By all indications, Cyber Monday is likely to set records this year. Buying online is a greener form of consumption because it reduces the amount of fuel used to find, price and purchase an item. Online shopping is also a greener way to shop due to the fact that trucks can deliver goods more efficiently and it takes a lot less energy to run a warehouse for boxes of goods than a mall. Online shopping can be a more beneficial option for the planet particularly when it is paired with more responsible purchasing (ie: purchasing items with smaller footprints).

Greenpeace Green Electronics Guide November 2011

Greenpeace does a great deal of good work for the environment and just in time for the holiday season they have released Their seventeenth edition of the Guide to Greener Electronics. It is the perfect guide to help consumers make the most environmentally responsible buying decisions for electronics.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Patagonia Shows the Way with Responsible Business Leadership

Patagonia is an outdoor clothing company that is showing real leadership by asking consumers to think twice about whether they really need to buy a new jacket. They offer services to fix the jacket you have rather than buy a new one. They will even help you sell it without charge. If it is really beyond repair, they will recycle it.

Black Friday 2011 Saw a Big Year-Over-Year Spending Increase

Early reports indicate that the 2011 Black Friday spend saw a huge year-over-year increase. According to the data group ShopperTrak, retail sales on Black Friday grew 6.6 percent this year compared to just 0.3% in 2010, raking in an estimated $11.4 billion dollars compared to last year's $10.7 billion of annual sales. This is the most total sales in the history of Black Friday.

Retailers Incorrectly Expected Frugal Holiday Buying on Black Friday 2011

Frugal buying would make the holiday spend less than some had hoped for. But what is bad for retailers would have been beneficial for the Earth. Estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau indicated that US retail and food services sales for October were up 0.5 percent from the previous month (economists expected a 0.3 percent rise) and 7.2 percent above October 2010. Excluding gasoline, retail sales rose 0.7 percent.

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Video: Our Role in Education for Sustainable Development



This video is a recording of the public forum on sustainability - Responding: Our Role in Education for Sustainable Development - that took place in Regina Saskatchewan October 14, 2010.

Video: Retail Shopping from a Sustainability Standpoint



This video takes a look at sustainable holiday shopping. How to spend thoughtfully and reconnect with the spirit of gift giving. This video focuses on alternatives to buying things. Look at where things come from and how they are made and what they are made of. Consider externalized costs when buying something. Try to buy things that are sustainably made. One example involves buying experiences instead of stuff.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Related Posts
Black Friday 2011 Saw a Big Year-Over-Year Spending Increase
Retailers Incorrectly Expected Frugal Holiday Buying on Black Friday 2011
Video: Sustainable Shopping
Video: The Story of Stuff
New Methods of Manufacturing and New Patterns of Consumption
Thanksgiving Shopping: Consumption and the Earth's Carrying Capacity
Thanksgiving Shopping: From Black Friday to Green Tuesday
Thanksgiving for those who Feel Thankless
Thanksgiving: Living in Harmony with the Planet

Video: Sustainable Shopping



Although the idea of putting an end to shopping may be taking the idea to an extreme, many are now acknowledging that we should replace rampant consumerism with more sustainable shopping. That means considering the footprints of the objects we buy. In this video you can learn about
sustainable shopping and simplifying holiday celebrations.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Related Posts
Black Friday 2011 Saw a Big Year-Over-Year Spending Increase
Retailers Incorrectly Expected Frugal Holiday Buying on Black Friday 2011
Video: Retail Shopping from a Sustainability Standpoint
Video: The Story of Stuff
New Methods of Manufacturing and New Patterns of Consumption
Thanksgiving Shopping: Consumption and the Earth's Carrying Capacity
Thanksgiving Shopping: From Black Friday to Green Tuesday
Thanksgiving for those who Feel Thankless
Thanksgiving: Living in Harmony with the Planet

Video: The Story of Stuff



From its extraction through sale, use and disposal, all the stuff in our lives affects communities at home and abroad, yet most of this is hidden from view. The Story of Stuff is a 20-minute, fast-paced, fact-filled look at the underside of our production and consumption patterns. The Story of Stuff exposes the connections between a huge number of environmental and social issues, and calls us together to create a more sustainable and just world. It'll teach you something, it'll make you laugh, and it just may change the way you look at all the stuff in your life forever.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Related Posts
Black Friday 2011 Saw a Big Year-Over-Year Spending Increase
Retailers Incorrectly Expected Frugal Holiday Buying on Black Friday 2011
Video: Retail Shopping from a Sustainability Standpoint
Video: Sustainable Shopping
New Methods of Manufacturing and New Patterns of Consumption
Thanksgiving Shopping: Consumption and the Earth's Carrying Capacity
Thanksgiving Shopping: From Black Friday to Green Tuesday
Thanksgiving for those who Feel Thankless
Thanksgiving: Living in Harmony with the Planet

Friday, November 25, 2011

New Methods of Manufacturing and New Patterns of Consumption

For the Earth to survive we need new patterns of consumption and new manufacturing methods. Our planet cannot sustain current rates of consumption or current methods of production.

Thanksgiving Shopping: Consumption and the Earth's Carrying Capacity

Throughout the Thanksgiving shopping period, hordes of shoppers will invade malls and stores all across the America. Spending money may help grow the economy but it is undermining the ecological systems on which our economy depends. Although retailers need the business, the planet cannot sustain the number of consumers or the type of consumption we commonly see on this day. There are now 7 billion people on the earth and it is estimated that at current levels of population growth the planet's carrying capacity will completely break down by 2050. Scientists at the Global Footprint project that using current rates of consumption combined with current means of production, by 2050 we'll be 500% above capacity.

Thanksgiving Shopping: From Black Friday to Green Tuesday

The period after Thanksgiving is the most busy US shopping period of the year. The traditional shopping period has been extended beyond Black Friday to include several days that now culminate on what is being called Green Tuesday. Here is a review of each of the four major shopping days that constitute the core of holiday shopping maddness.

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Thanksgiving for those who Feel Thankless

Traditionally Thanksgiving is the time of year when we take stock of what we have and express gratitude, however, this year there are many who feel they have little cause to be thankful. Despite ongoing economic hardships, most Americans still enjoy disproportionate material wealth when compared to the rest of the world.

Thanksgiving: Living in Harmony with the Planet

Thanksgiving is the perfect time to deepen commitments to greener living and more sustainable business practices. Thanksgiving is all about being grateful for everything we have, and it is only natural that we should show our appreciation for the environment by learning to be better stewards of the earth.

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

Sustainability / CSR Events in Atlanta this December

The Centre for Sustainability and Excellence is hosting two exciting events in Atlanta Georgia this December, in partnership with the City of Atlanta Mayor’s Office of Sustainability. The Centre for Sustainability and Excellence is conducting an IEMA-certified CSR training workshop on December 6-7 in Atlanta, GA. Upon completion of the course, participants are able to effectively develop Sustainability strategies, implement CSR programs, and communicate performances through Sustainability/CSR Reports.

Profiting from the New Rules of Green Marketing by Jacquie Ottman

On November 29th and 30th Humber College in Toronto Ontario is hosting a course and workshop entitled, Profiting from the New Rules of Green Marketing by Jacquie Ottman (SC 130). This workshop designed to bring to life the principles, strategies, tools and frameworks discussed in the award-winning book: The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding by Jacquelyn Ottman (Berrett-Koehler, 2011).

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Fisheries for Sustainable Fishers: Caribbean Fishers Leading the Way

In November the 64th annual meeting of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute (GCFI) took place in Cancun, Mexico. This event is the largest annual gathering of scientists, researchers, fishers and natural resource managers in the wider Caribbean region, with over 300 participants from 38 countries or island groups. The meeting served as a unique opportunity for fishers, conservationists and scientists to come together to exchange current information on the use and management of marine resources in the Gulf and Caribbean region and to work in partnership to develop effective solutions to the many challenges they face.

World Fisheries Day

World Fisheries day is celebrated every year on November 21 throughout the world by the fisherfolk communities. Fishing communities worldwide celebrate this day through rallies, workshops, public meetings, cultural programs, dramas, exhibition, music show, and demonstrations to highlight the importance of maintaining the world's fisheries.

Free Webinar: The Carbon Tax & Your Business

GreenBizCheck will be holding a free webinar on 29 November at 11 AM AEST. This webinar will help business owners gain a better understanding of the carbon tax and how it will affect their business.

Monday, November 21, 2011

A Reintroduction to the Climate Denying Duo Known as the Koch Brothers

The Koch brothers use the media to promote their climate denying circus of lies. Here is a succinct summary of their environment killing crusade.

Right Wing War Against Sustainability

A right wing front-group funded by big oil has launched a misinformation campaign against environmental groups and companies that are working to engage more sustainable practices. In a widely distributed letter they dismiss renewable energy and threaten to boycott companies for being more environmentally responsible.

Sunday, November 20, 2011

Sun Powered Entrepreneurship in Ghana

There are a number of green entrepreneurs popping up in Africa. One such entrepreneur is Addosolar, this company offers portable solar products for the people of Ghana. Their goal is to help address the need for light due to daily power outages in the nation, thereby enhancing the quality of life for all residents.

WWF is Conserving Nature and Combating Poverty in Namibia

Poverty may be widespread in Namibia but the sustainable use of natural resources is an area of expanding economic development in the country. Namibia is a leader amongst African nations for its protection of nature and the environment. Namibia was the first African country to incorporate protection of the environment into its constitution. To help with this endeavor the government of Namibia has given local communities the opportunity to manage their wildlife through communal conservancies.

Africa a Renewable Energy Superpower?

According to a study by Frost & Sullivan titled "Mega Trends in Africa: A bright vision for the growing continent", investment in renewable power in Africa is set to grow from a total of US$3.6-billion in 2010 to $57-billion by 2020. According to the UN over 600 million people do not have electric power on the continent of Africa.

East Africa Can Learn from Iceland's Geothermal Energy Industry

East Africa can learn a lot from Iceland where more than one quarter of that country's energy needs are generated by geothermal sources. Geothermal is a renewable resource and an attractive energy option where it is available. Since the 1970s Iceland has relied on geothermal to provide a considerable portion of its energy needs and this could be a model for East Africa, where geothermal potential is abundant. Iceland's exploitation of geothermal has completely replaced coal, and given rise to business, investment and tourism.

House Made of Plastic Bottles in Nigeria

Nigeria faces some serious environmental issues and one non-governmental organization has come up with some creative solutions. Drinking tap water is not safe in Nigeria, so people consume a lot of bottled water and that creates a lot of plastic waste. One industrious NGO in the country is using those empty plastic water bottles as building materials.

Africa Industrialization Day: Leapfrogging with Sustainable Energy

November 20th is Africa Industrialization Day, but unlike much of the rest of the world, development on this continent is proving to be far more sustainable.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Video: Plastic Bottle Greenhouse



This is a greenhouse built out of plastic bottles. You can purchase a little booklet online at blue rock station that shows you how to construct each phase of the greenhouse. It's a simple construction of rammed earth tires for the foundation and plastic bottles, with the north wall incorporating thermal mass.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Related Posts
Video: The Perils of Plastic Waste
House Made of Plastic Bottles in Nigeria
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Video: House Built With Plastic Bottles

Video: House Built With Plastic Bottles


Tomislav Radovanovic came up with idea of a plastic bottle house when he was teaching his students about building materials. This project started in 2001 and, with the support of his family, he managed to collect 14,000 plastic bottles. Mr. Radovanic continues to create masterpieces from plastic bottles.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Related Posts
Video: The Perils of Plastic Waste
House Made of Plastic Bottles in Nigeria
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Video: Does Your Business Recycle?



An interview with Bill Kralovenski, Operations Supervisor, at the Windsor Recycling Centre in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. He discusses the percentage of businesses that recycle in Windsor, as well as tips on how to get businesses to recycle.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Video: Profitable Recycling for Business



This online training course provides business managers with the essential information needed to improve management of their company's recyclable materials. For the first time, business executives can learn the information necessary to go green. This course provides the step by step process necessary to improve recycling, reduce costs and even make money from everyday recyclable materials. This training is critical for every business manager. The high quality e-learning course can be found at www.bottomlinerecycling.com

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Video: The Perils of Plastic Waste


When we dispose of plastic garbage we need to understand that it takes a very long time to break down and it leeches toxic materials as it does so. We must try not to use or buy plastic, but we must also find uses for tons of plastic already in circulation. We can all do our part from major corporations finding alternatives to plastics in packaging and manufacturing to private citizens picking up the plastic on their local beaches and out of the storm drains and sewer grates. Every little bit helps.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Friday, November 18, 2011

PepsiCo Canada's 100% Recycled EcoGreen Bottle Breakthrough

PepsiCo Beverages Canada has launched North America's first soft drink bottle made from 100% recycled post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic. The bottle is know as the 7UP EcoGreen bottle and is made of 100 percent recycled plastic. The formula for such a bottle has eluded other carbonated beverage companies because of the additional stress placed on the bottles from carbonation pressure.

LG's Recycling Leadership

LG Electronics sponsored events across the nation on America Recycles Day which took place on November 15. They were the only consumer electronics company to do so.  LG recycles over 15% of all of their electronics products which include household appliances, computers and mobile phones. Additionally, about 11% of all LG products use recycled plastics (post-industrial plastics). LG has targeted increasing the use of recycled plastics across 25% of all products worldwide. The LG Recycling Program covers all of the LGE brands: LG, Goldstar and Zenith.

Recycling In America: More Than Just A Feel Good Experience

Recycling leads to far more than entitled consumerism, when done right it is capable of producing significant results. Given the gravity of the environmental crises we face, it is very easy to be cynical about small scale activities like recycling, but even these small gestures, if repeated often enough, can amount to major savings for the planet. Recycling minimizes landfills which emit global warming causing methane.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Recycling Can Create Millions of Jobs

A report titled "More Jobs, Less Pollution: Growing the Recycling Economy in the U.S.,"prepared by an alliance of recycling advocates and labor unions claims that reaching a national recycling rate of 75 percent by 2030 would create nearly 1.5 million jobs and reduce pollution.

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

ISOS GRI Certification Course

A two day course will be held on November 17-18 at the AT&T Executive Education Conference Center (University of Texas at Austin). Daily proceedings are scheduled from 8.30 AM to 6 PM, with breakfast being served at 8.00 AM. ISOS Group is a GRI Certified Training Partner for the USA. Concept Green is an ISOS Group Collaborating Partner in executing GRI Certified Trainings.

Webinar: Sustainability in the Curriculum

On Thursday, November 17, 2011 between 2:00 PM and 3:30 PM (EST) a complementary webinar will take place that will review sustainability in the curriculum. The Sustainability in the Curriculum Webinar will address successful strategies for Integrating sustainability into the Curriculum at 2 and 4- year Schools.

Webinar: Identifying Hidden Energy and Sustainability Costs

On Wednesday, November 16, 2011 at 10:00 AM PST (1:00 PM EST) Hara and Intuit will be conducting a complimentary webinar titled, “Identifying Hidden Energy and Sustainability Costs: How to Achieve Visibility and Transparency,” which will be hosted by Environmental Leader. This webinar will feature Tom Harrington, Senior Program Manager, Workplace Services at Intuit and Jason Smith, Manager, Sales Engineering at Hara.

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Recycling Waste Tires

With hundreds of millions of vehicles in the US, scrap tires are a major source of waste. The Environmental Protection Agency reports 290 million scrap tires were generated in 2003, 45 million of these scrap tires were used to make automotive and truck tire re-treads.

The Chief Supply Chain Officers' Summit 2011

The Chief Supply Chain Officers' Summit (CSCO) Summit 2011 will take place on November 17, 2011. This is a live online virtual event. The CSCO Summit is designed for Chief Supply Chain Officers, Chief Procurement Officers, Chief Operating Officers and Chief Information Officers, as well as forward thinking Vice Presidents and Heads of Department. Attendees can network, learn and share best practice around the critical factors driving the strategic supply chain agenda across multiple industry sectors, without leaving the office.

America Recycles Day (ARD)

November 15 is America Recycles Day (ARD) a day to promote the social, environmental and economic benefits of recycling. This day was started by the National Recycling Coalition in 1997. ARD is the only nationally recognized day dedicated to the promotion of recycling in the U.S. (World Recycling Day is on July 8).

Monday, November 14, 2011

North America 300 Carbon Ranking 2011: Top 20 Countries

An environmental tracking report from the Environmental Investment Organisation, provides rankings of the carbon emissions of companies around the world. The report ranked the world’s largest 1,300 companies according to their greenhouse gas emissions and transparency.

Global 800 Carbon Ranking 2011: Top 20 Countries

A new environmental tracking (ET) report from the Environmental Investment Organisation (EIO), provides detailed rankings of the carbon emissions of companies around the world. The report ranked the world’s largest 1,300 companies according to their greenhouse gas emissions and transparency.

Global Carbon Rankings 2011 from the EIO

A new environmental tracking (ET) report provides detailed rankings of the carbon emissions of companies around the world. This report is a must read for Sustainability Professional, Investors, NGOs and anyone concerned about climate change.

Sunday, November 13, 2011

Cleantech Open 2011 Global Forum

On November 15-16 2011, the Cleantech Open Global Forum, also known as the "Academy Awards of Cleantech" will offer two days packed with keynotes, 100+ exhibits, networking, on-stage demos from innovative entrepreneurs, live judging of the Final 21, evening receptions - all culminating in awarding the winners of the Global Ideas Competition and the $250,000 US National Grand Prize.

Greener Purchasing Summit 2011

On Tuesday, November 15, 2011 between 1:00 PM and 6:30 PM (Pacific Time) at the Chabot Space & Science Center in Oakland, California, there will be a Greener Purchasing Summit. Speakers include Yalmaz Siddiqui, Senior Director Environmental Strategy, Office Depot and David Gottfried, the founder of the US Green Building Council.

Certified Sustainability (CSR) Practitioner Training Workshops in Toronto

On November 3rd and 4th, 2011, the Centre for Sustainability and Excellence (CSE) hosted its global Training Program “Certified Sustainability (CSR) Practitioner” in Toronto. This was the organization's first training workshop in Canada. Participants included sustainability managers, environmental consultants, external relations advisors and communications executives from a wide range of business sectors.

Video: IBM Road Map for Going Green



© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Review of Some of the Companies Present at Solar Power International 2011

Solar Power International (SPI '11), took place at the Dallas Convention Center between October 17th and 20th 2011. There were general sessions including the participation of leading solar companies. The solar sector is very important in the US as one of the only sectors that is growing and creating jobs. Right now there are over 100,000 solar jobs and the industry enjoyed a growth rate of 6.8% in 2010. That is phenonmenal growth compared to the rest of the American economy.

Saturday, November 12, 2011

Video: IBM - Energy & Climate - Innovation that matters



In this video energy and the climate are reviewed with a focus on efficiencies and the future of the digital utility is explained. IBM is helping pioneer the digital electricity grid which holds promises to lower massive amounts of emissions and save vast amount of energy and capital.


© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Video: Sustainability...Your Competitive Advantage



Caterpillar Sustainable Development Manager John Disharoon presented "Sustainability...Your Competitive Advantage" daily from the stage in Generations Park at CONEXPO-CON/AGG 2011.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Video: Navigating the Journey to Sustainability



This paper combines theory from a variety of theoretical streams such as business education, learning, psychology, social psychology, and complex systems to present a case for embedding sustainability literacy into all tertiary business education, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, irrespective of social culture. The argument is premised on assertions of emerging sustainability values across countries around the world, the impact of the business sector on resource use in society and the role of Education for Sustainability (EfS) in shaping graduates attitudes and knowledge. Given EfS and sustainability itself are both journeys of learning, is it argued that tertiary institutions must actively engage and navigate their students' journey of learning towards sustainability. (By:Liz Sidiropoulos, CQUniversity).

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Video: The Journey of Sustainable Business


Can business profit through sustainability or is this all just wishful thinking? Trace the journey from the Industrial Revolution to the present to find out. This video also explores the model provided by the late Ray Anderson who introduced sustainability into all aspects of Interface's operations in the 90s.

© 2011, Richard Matthews. All rights reserved.

Friday, November 11, 2011

Veterans Support Clean Energy

A 2010 Lake Research Group poll found that 73 percent of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans support the passage of clean energy and climate legislation. The same poll found that 79 percent of these veterans believe that ending our dependence on foreign oil is an important step for our national security, 67 percent of veterans indicated they support the argument that such legislation will help their own economic prospects.

President Obama Stops Keystone XL Pipeline

On November 10, 2011, President Obama stood up for Americans and put the future of the planet ahead of Big Oil. Citing climate change President Obama sent the Keystone XL pipeline project back for review until at least 2013. The announcement is a reflection of the President's commitment to clean energy.

Thursday, November 10, 2011

South Africa and the Rise of Renewable Energy on the Continent

Two of the largest renewable energy projects ever attempted are being built on the African continent. The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors have approved $250 million in funding for the Eskom Renewables Energy Support Project (ERSP) to help implement major solar and wind power projects in South Africa. The new financing complements the US$260 million provided to Eskom to implement the Upington and Sere renewable energy projects included in the $3.75 billion Eskom Investment Support Project approved in April 2010.

Lesotho's Renewable Energy Projects One of the Largest in Africa

One of the largest energy projects in Africa is being built in the tiny mountain kingdom of Lesotho. This renewable energy project will make power from wind and water. The Lesotho highlands power project (LHPP) will cost $15bn (£9bn) and will generate 6,000 megawatts (MW) of wind power and 4,000MW of hydropower.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Norway a Model of Sustainability for the Arab World

We are witnessing profound changes in the Arab world that could give way to a more sustainable world. For a sustainable revolution to take hold the Arab world must become responsible stewards of their natural resources. Norway offers a model of how to put oil and gas reserves to work for a more sustainable future. Since 1996, the Norwegian government has invested over $240 billion of its oil revenues into social welfare initiatives, on the one hand, and renewable energy projects, such as hydro and wind power.

Arab Spring Fueling the World's Most Ambitious Solar Project

There are early indications that the environment could benefit from the Arab Spring. A $550 Billion plan for the world's most ambitious solar project could be producing energy by 2015.